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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

amphibious

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2017年排行榜分别评选了60个“无工作经验要求”的项目和6个“有工作经验要求”的项目。“无工作经验要求”的项目主要面向拥有很少或没有金融业背景的学生,“有工作经验要求”的项目针对的是已经在金融领域工作的专业人士。只有少数几家学院提供“有工作经验要求”的课程。
This raises the risk of heavy rains and flooding, scientists pointed out, because warmer temperatures would lead to more water vapour in the world’s atmosphere.
By more than one measure, 2014 is a year the Honda Motor Co. would prefer to forget or to obscure, reflected in a roundabout way by its grand slogan for 2015, “The Year of Honda.”

Another slowdown in food prices pulled Chinese inflation lower in October, according to the National Bureau of Statistics.
皮耶里在大型消费类产品公司工作过多年,如Stride Rite和科迪斯(Keds)等。所以,这种夫妻店在推出新产品时所遇到的困难令皮耶里感到失望。她解释道:“越创新的产品,因为与主流和‘已知’相悖,因而越难销售。”因此,她在五年前成立了The Grommet,这个信息分享平台会将消费者与发明者的故事和产品联系起来。皮耶里的公司帮助发布的产品包括自制碳酸饮料机Sodastream和智能腕带Fitbit。她一直把惠普公司(HP)CEO梅格惠特曼作为自己的导师,并在哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)担任入驻企业家。
锁定一个品牌,它擅长于制作你想要的类型的车,这样可以高效地购买并找到对你来说最好的车。2016美国新闻最佳汽车品牌奖从四个类别挑选了最佳的品牌:轿车、SUV、卡车和豪车。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

北京公租房小区标配“人脸识别”

但是,如果《广告狂人》向我们展示了什么的话(除了修身西服看起来多酷,宽领带真的不是男装的点睛之笔),那么,它最主要展示的是,60年代非常复杂,往往不太愉快,偶尔具有破坏性。
Getting sector calls right was the least of any investor’s problems this year because, outside of the brilliance of U.S. stock gains, the lights were off around the world.
6. Cutting Down on Saturated Fats Could Preserve Your Memory

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

"While most Chinese brands remain unknown to the outside world, within China they are establishing themselves with ever more sophisticated campaigns," said Rupert Hoogewerf, Hurun Report chairman and chief researcher.
Manufacturer of advanced and quality products
2014年最佳引擎榜单的其他入选者还包括宝马5系豪华轿车和紧凑型雪佛兰科鲁兹(Cruze)所使用的涡轮增压柴油发动机,保时捷Cayman双座运动跑车的水平对置2.7升6缸发动机以及大众汽车捷达紧凑车的1.8升4缸涡轮增压发动机。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Taken together, these events and strategic initiatives highlight the Chinese aerospace industry’s realization that, in order to become a globally competitive player, it will need depth as much as breadth. After getting their hands on both ends of the value chain—aircraft design and final assembly—the Chinese now understand that what will make or break their industry over the long term is what happens in the middle of the value chain, at the component and subsystem levels. And that is why China’s ambition to compete with Boeing and Airbus, as well as with GE and Rolls-Royce for aircraft engines, is now more credible than ever.
  • 报告称中国房价不算离谱:收入增99.7%房价涨21%
  • 尽管詹姆斯和费德勒在工资和薪水上要少一些(相比于C罗和梅西),但是这两人去年的代言费是最高的,其中17次大满贯得主费德勒去年代言收入达到了4100万英镑。
  • 北京国企自建保障房 杭州尝试留用地建租赁住宅
  • 半导体照明产业整体发展较快 各环节增速均超20%
  • 预计将有8900多万企业退休人员和1700多万机关事业单位退休人员从中受益。
    这样令人反胃的发现在当地并非第一次。从去年起,位于中越边境的广西警方加强了对走私活动的监察打击力度,并成功突袭七家非法食品加工厂。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 中国老龄人口已达2.5亿 当你老了,如何养老?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

我国建筑涂料行业VOCs排放调研报告

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

库存不足成为楼市催涨令 新房库存怎么总是不足

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 这家Post-it即时贴和思高(Scotch)胶带制造商在2月份授权进行120亿美元的股票回购,取代当前75亿美元的回购计划。《财富》美国500强公司3M公司(3M) 遵循了去年末发表的声明行动。这项声明称,公司在之后4年准备投入100亿美元用于收购,最多将投入220亿美元用于回购。
    狄更斯在《双城记》中描写法国大革命时,距离事件发生已有近一个世纪。而我则是在今年12月就回顾盘点这一年。因此,我在此描述的某些趋势,可能将在可预见的未来继续存在,而另一些趋势则可能已经开始减弱。作为当今时代“最哗众取宠的权威人士”之一,我只要求各位在阅读这篇评论文章时记住一点:过去的业绩并不能保证将来的表现。
  • 噢,卡梅隆,真希望你还有高中时的风采,因为那时的你是史诗般的存在。
    PRRI研究总监丹尼尔-考克斯说,一些受访者(包括75%的非白人新教徒)相信恶劣天气既是末日论的证据,也是气候变化的结果。
    Mr Koepke warns that this could easily be upset by the Fed.
    全球最佳大学排行榜是根据科睿唯安公司提供的数据和标准得出的。
    现今和未来的科技都基于多重技术,而每一种技术都在发生着改变、并和其他技术交互。这让我们的科技产品,像是互联网的东西、电话、笔记本等等变得不稳定,这同时也让消费者感到厌恶。就说说你们手机里的应用,有多少你是真正在用的?又有多少真正能让你的生活变简单、变快捷、变得更有趣?我认为消费者对此的嘲讽情绪会上升,科技带给他们的愉悦感会被失望所取代。这会给硬件和软件的开发者造成压力,从而让他们追求最无趣的产品品质:稳定性。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 苏州限售新政落地!园区狮山新房3年,园区二手房5年
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 毕业季租赁市场量价齐升 是谁制造了房租上涨

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

May you have the best New Year ever.愿你度过最美好的新年!
Now 12 games into the quadrennial tournament, the World Cup is averaging 3.42 goals per game. Nigeria-Iran promises to bring that average down, but as long there is at least one goal in that game or the United States-Ghana match, the World Cup will head into its sixth day averaging at least 3.0 goals per game. The last time a World Cup averaged that many goals for an entire tournament was 1958 when Pele burst onto the scene and the 12 teams combined to average 3.60 over just 35 total matches.
WHAT: A Greek Revival with four bedrooms and four and a half bathrooms
It is not hard to think of recent examples, from Hugo Chávez to Viktor Orban and Vladimir Putin.
Many bosses hold their staff accountable, but the best show that they hold themselves accountable as well. This means adhering to the same guidelines they set for their employees and taking responsibility for both team successes and failures。
单词administration 联想记忆:
9. 组建自己的“一流团队”。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • PC demand has been hit by competition from smartphones and tablets, along with longer lifecycles for PCs. Shipments fell in all regions around the world and have declined for five quarters in a row, according to IDC's figures.
  • 行业变革引导环保家装新时代、新潮流
  • n. 面具,面罩,伪装
    米尔德里德的女儿7个月前遇害,但凶手仍然逍遥法外,主角一怒之下做出了一个大胆的决定:买下了小镇入口三张广告牌并在张贴图片中抨击颇有威望的警长威廉?威洛比。威廉的副手官迪克逊是一个幼稚的妈宝男,有暴力倾向。迪克逊卷入这件事后,米尔德里德和小镇执法系统之间的较量变得愈发激烈了。
  • 北京开展第三次全国土地调查 建立数据库和共享服务平台
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • CELEBRITY couple Ronald Cheng and Charlene Choi, who announced their separation earlier, are actually getting a divorce。  明星情侣郑中基和蔡卓妍,早先宣布二
    肯尼迪中心为她的善举给她颁发了希望的波澜奖(the Ripple of Hope Award),泰勒也成为此奖项的最年轻获得者。
  • Despite the fact that each market rebound ended up as a V-shaped affair, each successive rally was carried out with less and less individual stock participation. Glaring divergences between winners and losers, large caps and small caps, preoccupied the commentariat for most of the spring and summer. Deflationary concerns from Europe and the Japanese technical recession further confounded analysts, as Treasury yields and inflation indicators in the U.S. were driven lower despite the improving domestic economy.
    时间:2010-06-03 编辑:francie
  • 在英国,今年可能是大型咨询公司正式进入法律市场的一年吗?其他的“另类业务结构”——或者说按照“乐购法”(Tesco law)成立的律所——将通过提供固定费用服务、把业务外包给松散的律师网络,或者推出法律聊天机器人提供即时而实惠的建议,而终于立足消费者市场吗?为了普通公民的利益,得有人突破这个领域。
    从某些方面来看,《生活真奇怪》(Life Is Strange)与Dontnod Entertainment的科幻动作类游戏《勿忘我》(Remember Me)是两款截然不同的游戏,而从另一些方面来看,这两款章节式的冒险游戏十分类似。两款游戏都采用了虚幻3引擎(Unreal Engine 3),打造了美轮美奂的游戏世界供玩家探索。这两款游戏的名字也都有非常具有女性特征的主角。《生活真奇怪》的故事发生于美国俄勒冈州的阿卡迪亚湾,玩家将操纵青年马克斯o考菲尔德,开始一段包含有五个章节互动剧情的冒险。
  • 吕特在周一晚间的辩论中重申,他不会与维尔德斯所属的政党组建联合政府,他甚至还表示不可能组建一个依赖这个反移民政党支持的政府。吕特表示:“我不会再次与这样的政党合作。”在2010年选举之后,吕特组建的首个少数派政府受到自由党的支持。
    一个由BuzzFeed News(译者注:类似今日头条的新闻搜集网站)所做的分析揭示了本年度Facebook上流传最广的50条假新闻。他们加起来大约有2150万次的点赞、评论及分享。在这些新闻里,23条和美国政治相关,2条关于女人用她们的阴道作为谋杀用的凶器,还有1条关于一个小丑娃娃其实一直都是个真人。
    7、Bad body language habits
  • Brian Kendrella, president of New York-based Stack's Bowers Galleries, says the auction drew half a dozen bidders from six countries. The winning bidder Thursday was an individual collector from Asia who asked to remain anonymous.
    最终,民主政体或者民主共和国为不同观点乃至不同文化的人们提供了较为和谐地比邻而居的方式。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 租房的金融创新 是天使还是魔鬼 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京54.79亿元扶贫资金拨付到位

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

家居代理商自己做“电商”面前后夹击

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

房地产去库存拉开攻坚大幕 房价总体稳中略升

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

多个热点城市二手房价出现下调

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • A lot of the best James Bond theme songs sound like they belong in a lounge act. That's not a complaint, just an observation. For whatever reason, the English new wave act Duran Duran was given free reign to provide A View to a Kill with a new and exciting sound all its own. "A View to a Kill" was a hit song, and it probably would have been a success even without the James Bond connection. It's entertaining and cool and energetic, and it promises one hell of a good time. (Whether or not the movie actually lives up to that promise is a matter of some debate.)
  • 《行动代号:猿人》
  • 绍兴市三季度自镇流LED灯产品市级监督抽查结果

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Additional reporting by Ma Nan
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 会建立起稳定、流动性较强的比特币期货市场吗?
    赖床有了新理由
    下载量紧随《权力的游戏》之后的是美剧《绝命毒师》和《行尸走肉》。以下是根据BT下载网站 TorrentFreak和BitTorrent 数据统计的2013年被下载次数最多的美剧排名:
  • The top SUV maker and MPV maker last month are familiar to all: Great Wall Motor and SAIC General Motor Wuling stayed on their segment thrones. SAIC Volkswagen also maintained its crown in the sedans and hatchbacks segment.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 你可能从未想过一根皮带可以与人工智能相结合,但Belty做到了,并使它看起来很时尚。这个belty会让你不自觉就觉得,“为什么我需要这个?”然后你想可能会是,“如果是黑客入侵,他们把它系得很紧我不能呼吸该怎么办?”第一个问题是合理的;第二个问题有些牵强,但如果它让你三思而后买这个产品,这并不是一件坏事。
  • 楼市调控长效机制雏形确立 未来“先租后买”更方便
  • 根据世界黄金协会(World Gold Council)的数据,自2008年以来全球黄金供应每年都增长,这一增长在去年陷入停滞。作为世界最大的黄金生产国,去年中国的黄金供应创纪录地下降9%,这是自1980年来中国的黄金产出第二次下降。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 戴德梁行:武汉商品住宅库存告急 白菜地拍出肉价
  • Household substance abuse
  • 房地产受益降准最大 一二线楼市下半年供需反转
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

工信部力推新材料产业标准化

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 中办、国办:鼓励小农户以土地经营权入股龙头企业
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 深圳一二手住宅成交价企稳 刚需入市步伐或加快
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Whedon had always loved the seemingly separate ideas of sci-fi and westerns, and through The Killer Angels, he saw a way to combine them. "I wanted to play with that classic notion of the frontier," he said. "Not the people who made history, but the people history stepped on—the people for whom every act is the creation of civilization." And Whedon decided to set the frontier on a spaceship: a ship named Serenity.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

轮滑看起来有点像常规的单排轮滑鞋,不过轮滑的轮非常大,尺寸大小跟自行车车轮差不多,看起来像是溜冰鞋,滑雪板和自行车的合体。最近一家名字叫作战车溜冰的公司声称,他们已经有了一些独特的想法——战车轮滑。根据该公司所说,这种轮滑是"革命性的新轮滑产品"。这是一场改革吗?也许是吧,他们至少在改进设计。这是发明吗?不是的。第一双轮滑早在142年前就已存在 。
美国的排放量在经过了最近几年的持续下降后,提高了2.9%。
译文属可可英语原创,未经允许,不得转载。
“中国银行业面临的逆风将延续很长时间,”他说。“除了盈利来源减少,它们还将不得不为坏账带来的亏损做好准备。”
在这月初这封信上写着的地址是宾夕法尼亚大学的某个邮箱。
Perhaps my favorite profile this year was Kiki Zhao’s stirring depiction of the remarkable Yu Xiuhua, now one of China’s most read poets, a woman with cerebral palsy who lived most of her 41 years on a farm, writing at a low table. She never finished high school, and says she “could write before she could read.” Now, she is invited to places like Stanford University and fends off comparisons to Emily Dickinson.
The ground-breaking discoveries in physics, have ignited a firestorm of research, and it’s only a matter of time before their research leads to advances as unimaginable to us now as lasers and computer chips were a hundred years ago, Laura H. Greene, president-elect of the American Physical Society told The New York Times.
2月CPI同比上涨2.3%,高于预期的1.8%,为2014年7月以来最大涨幅。1月CPI同比上涨1.8%。
不会。结束罗伯特穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)长达37年的执政(军方在这件事上也帮了点忙)后,埃默森姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)承诺在2018年举行自由选举。这引出了一个问题:他可能会输掉大选。他至少要装作选举是公平的,因为他需要政治献金来扭转经济。这将意味着要推行选举改革——可能会让其不受欢迎的非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线(Zanu-PF)输掉选举。即使姆南加古瓦准备好在选举中赌一把,还不清楚军方愿不愿意。已经把自己的人推上台的津巴布韦将军们,不太可能会容许公众再把他踢下去。
在美国发起反倾销案件比在欧盟容易得多。在欧盟,企业必须先通过公众利益测试。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

征信系统升级 将增加共同借款等信息

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 昔日影坛风光无限米高梅公司重组计划已获得批准,电影公司将由望远镜娱乐公司( Spyglass Entertainment )掌舵再次出发。而MGM也将不会在作为电影电影发行公司,而仅仅是一个制作公司。这使得第二十三部《007詹姆斯-邦德》电影问世日期更加具体化。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 不过,一些议员已经开始讨论2月末或因联邦借款上限再度引发僵局。达科称,你永远不能指望决策者们不会搬起石头砸自己的脚。
  • 网上办理建设用地规划许可证
  • Common and Day will perform "Stand Up For Something" from "Marshall" and Settle will perform "This is Me" from "The Greatest Showman."
  • 受质量价格双重打击 “明码实价”将成家居建材新趋势
  • 伦敦商学院的MBA课程位列欧洲第一,与美国哥伦比亚商学院(Columbia Business School)合办的EMBA课程位列第三,管理硕士课程首次参与排名就跻身前10名。参与管理硕士课程排名是伦敦商学院夺得欧洲榜首的关键因素。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 6月75城成交点评:成交如期降温 房价涨幅放缓
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • As a national exam with more than 1 million test takers every year, the National Postgraduates Entrance Examination is very important for students' academic life, and cheating incidents have been exposed from time to time.
  • 5.布莱恩·克兰斯顿曾是杀人嫌疑犯

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2015年LED照明市场规模将达257亿美元

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